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Kepulauan Pasifik menghadapi ambisi China

Kepulauan Pasifik menghadapi ambisi China

Kepulauan Pasifik menghadapi ambisi China, yang tersebar di Samudra Pasifik yang luas, bersama dengan Australia dan Selandia Baru, di hubungkan oleh lingkungan alam, kepercayaan, budaya, dan pengetahuan tradisional mereka.

Saat ini mereka juga berbagi tantangan: ancaman yang sangat nyata dari naik nya permukaan laut, badai yang lebih sering,

dan ekonomi yang lumpuh karena Covid-19. Namun pertemuan tatap muka pertama blok regional itu dalam hampir tiga tahun

di ibu kota Fiji, Suva, ternyata tidak menjadi reuni hangat yang di harapkan banyak orang.

Sehari sebelum acara di mulai, Kiribati – salah satu pulau paling terpencil di dunia – membuat pengumuman mengejutkan bahwa mereka tidak akan menghadiri KTT dan keluar dari blok sama sekali.

faktor cina

Lokasi strategis kawasan dan kebutuhan akan bantuan telah memicu perebutan pengaruh di Pasifik, dengan China ingin memainkan peran penting.

Pada Juni, Beijing mengusulkan kesepakatan perdagangan dan keamanan menyeluruh dengan 10 negara di kawasan itu. Tapi itu ditangguhkan setelah banyak negara menolak untuk menandatangani.

Namun China menjadi tuan rumah dialog politik terpisah dengan negara-negara Kepulauan Pasifik pada saat yang sama dengan forum PIF yang berlangsung di Suva.

Delegasi termasuk pejabat dari Tonga, Niue, Vanuatu, Papua Nugini, Mikronesia dan Kiribati menghadiri acara Tiongkok secara langsung. Kedutaan China di Fiji mencatat bahwa menteri pertahanan Fiji bergabung dengan video.

Kiribati telah bergerak lebih dekat ke China setelah menarik pengakuan di plomatik dari Taiwan pada 2019. (Beijing menganggap Taiwan

sebagai bagian dari China dan mengatakan harus bersatu dengan daratan China, sementara Taiwan melihat dirinya sebagai negara merdeka.)

Bahkan sebelum pandemi, Kiribati memiliki tingkat utang yang tinggi dan membutuhkan pendanaan.

China juga telah hadir di Fiji selama beberapa generasi. Namun dalam 10 tahun terakhir, telah banyak berinvestasi – dalam infrastruktur dan perikanan – dan telah menjadi mitra dagang utama dengan semua Kepulauan Pasifik.

Apa yang dulunya merupakan hubungan ekonomi murni kini menjadi jauh lebih dalam, melintasi bidang-bidang seperti hukum, pertanian, jasa, dan juga keamanan.

Pada bulan April Kepulauan Solomon menandatangani pakta keamanan dengan Beijing. Pertemuan minggu ini di Suva adalah pertama kalinya PM Solomon Manasseh Sogavare bertemu dengan rekan-rekan PIF-nya sejak saat itu.

“Kami adalah keluarga dan ada banyak masalah, dan itu membuat keluarga lebih kuat,” kata Sogavare setelah memeluk Perdana Menteri Australia Anthony Albanese.

Kekhawatiran besar adalah seputar potensi China untuk mendirikan pangkalan militer China di Pasifik Selatan, sesuatu

baca juga: Populer Bubur Sum Sum Pandan

yang sekarang di katakan Sogavare tidak akan dia izinkan. “Saat kami mendirikan pangkalan militer asing, kami segera menjadi musuh [Pasifik],” katanya kepada RNZ dalam sebuah wawancara eksklusif.

Apakah ambisi Pasifik China telah di gagalkan?

China mendapatkan pijakan di halaman belakang Australia
Australia mendeklarasikan ‘era baru’ di Pasifik

Di tanya tentang komentar Sogavare, juru bicara kementerian luar negeri China, Wang Wenbin mengatakan Pasifik Selatan harus menjadi “platform kerja sama, bukan medan pertempuran untuk persaingan jahat”.

Albanese menyebut pertemuan dengan Sogavare “sangat konstruktif” dan mengatakan kepada media Australia bahwa dia yakin bahwa pangkalan militer China “tidak akan terjadi”.

Tarik-menarik geopolitik
Namun China bukan satu-satunya negara yang meningkatkan kehadirannya di Pasifik.

Tindakan Beijing telah menghidupkan kembali kepentingan pemangku kepentingan lain yang telah lama absen dari geopolitik kawasan – seperti AS.

Wakil Presiden AS Kamala Harris berpidato di forum tersebut, mengumumkan dua kedutaan baru di Kiribati dan Kepulauan Solomon. Dia juga melipatgandakan tingkat bantuan saat ini untuk membantu memerangi penangkapan ikan ilegal, meningkatkan keamanan maritim, dan mengatasi perubahan iklim, setelah beberapa dekade pendanaan terhenti.

Sementara Australia mengatakan telah membuat komitmen pertahanan yang akan menciptakan lapangan kerja dan melindungi industri perikanan.

Jendela peluang tentang iklim

Tetapi ancaman keamanan terbesar bagi anggota forum terus menjadi perubahan iklim dan PIF menyatakan darurat iklim di wilayah tersebut untuk pertama kalinya.

Ini sebagian besar merupakan langkah simbolis, tetapi para pemimpin menekankan bahwa krisis “mengancam mata pencaharian, keamanan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat dan ekosistemnya”. Ini juga menempatkan masalah di depan dan di tengah keputusan kebijakan di masa depan.

“Kami mengalami 14 topan sejak 2016, topan pada 2016 menghapus sepertiga dari nilai PDB kami dalam 36 jam. Ini dampak yang sangat besar,” kata Aiyaz Sayed-Khaiyum, menteri ekonomi dan perubahan iklim Fiji.

Sarina Theys, dosen diplomasi di Universitas Pasifik Selatan di Suva, mengatakan kepada BBC bahwa negara-negara Pasifik

harus menggunakan fokus internasional yang di perbarui pada pengaturan keamanan kawasan sebagai pengungkit untuk tindakan iklim yang lebih banyak.

“Saya pikir ada jendela peluang bagi negara-negara Kepulauan Pasifik untuk menggunakan situasi saat ini untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu

terkait perubahan iklim, dan untuk menyelesaikannya dari aktor lain yang penting, karena mereka adalah pencemar utama,” kata Theys. , mengacu pada AS, Australia, dan Cina.

Ketua Forum dan Perdana Menteri Fiji memilih Australia – meminta Perdana Menteri Anthony Albanese untuk berkomitmen membatasi

pemanasan global hingga 1,5 derajat dan mengakhiri “kecanduan bahan bakar fosil”.

Persatuan dan solidaritas regional tetap menjadi prioritas bagi negara-negara Kepulauan Pasifik – tetapi mereka juga memiliki keputusan untuk diambil tentang kekuatan luar mana yang akan diizinkan untuk mempertaruhkan masa depan kawasan mereka, dan dengan syarat apa.

baca juga: Kursi dorong Liza terletak di sisinya luar

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